[HOT] : 2011 Curiosity on Mars: the journey of Man planned for 2030 Part two
Other complex organic molecules found
During a collection of samples in 2017, a malfunction in Curiosity’s maneuver would have made it possible to discover new organic molecules still unseen on the surface of the red planet: ammonia and benzoic acid. Benzoic acid, derived from benzene, is present on Earth in certain plants such as cranberries or cocoa trees. Ammonia is commonly seen as a gas, emanating from the earth’s crust and other sources such as bacterial fermentation or certain hydrocarbons such as petroleum and coal. They informed scientists about the geological evolution of Mars. (7)
Curiosity was designed not to claim that there are traces of life currently on the surface, but to demonstrate the habitability of Mars. It was a successful bet since it showed that conditions favorable to life were met there. With each discovery, scientists have confirmed that on the Red Planet, the physical and chemical processes of formation are the same as on our planet. Just as the same minerals are found, the same sediment transport processes, with wind and water. And the discoveries may not be over yet. Curiosity continues its harvest of data for scientists, without even being ousted by Perseverance, the most recent NASA rover, which joined it in February 2021. They complement each other: Curiosity specializes in geology while Perseverance in life and biology. (7)
One of the key objectives of the mission of Perseverance on Mars concerns astrobiology
Ten years of good and loyal service. To mark the anniversary of ten years of Martian presence, Curiosity has just taken the most beautiful photo of the year. This latest shot from NASA is one of the best we’ve ever seen. As Curiosity continues to dig for traces of life, mission engineers ordered the rover to take these images on November 16, 2021. Using its navigation cameras, the vehicle took two composite images capturing the same scene in the morning and late afternoon, local time in March. It will be 10 years since the Curiosity rover left Earth. It was November 26, 2011. And 2021 alone has been a particularly productive year for Martian photos. On September 12, (2021) Curiosity even shared a video with us. A video provides an overview of the Ingenuity helicopter’s 13th flight to Mars. Taken at a distance of 300 meters, it offers a panorama of the environment in which the helicopter is advancing. Flying on Mars is very tricky. First, the atmosphere is very fine with a weightlessness close to that of the Earth. The Martian helicopter designed and piloted by NASA serves as a scout on the red planet. By exploring the surroundings and providing three-dimensional views, it allows researchers to decide from Earth the next tasks and directions for the Perseverance rover.8,9
With this in mind, the rover continues to dig for samples with the intention of finding signs of ancient microbial life. Geologists, with their knowledge and the help of preliminary observations obtained through Ingenuity, then decide on strategic locations where samples will be collected. These will be recovered during a future mission to Mars. “The rover will characterize the past geology and climate of the planet, pave the way for human exploration of the red planet, and be the first mission to collect and cache Martian rock and regolith (shattered rock and dust) . (9)
While waiting to know if humans will be able to colonize the worlds of Proxima from the Centaur, the star closest to us, a team of scientists from the University of Sydney wants to develop a specific satellite designed to detect and locate the worlds living quarters of Alpha Centauri, a three-star system. Toliman is the Latinized Arabic name for Alpha Centauri and also the acronym for Telescope for Orbit Locus Interferometric Monitoring of our Astronomical Neighborhood. © Toliman team.10
In the Solar System, it is estimated that the habitability zone around the Sun extends from 0.95 to 1.67 astronomical units (AU, the average distance from the Earth to the Sun, or approximately 150 million km) . In fact, only the Earth evolves in this region. As for Mars, it is located at the limit of the zone and therefore remains a frozen world. However, the most recent discoveries made on Earth but also on other worlds of the Solar System lead us to redefine what is the habitable zone of the Solar System. Today, this area is no longer just defined as the region where water can remain liquid on the surface of a planet. Because of this proximity, “these neighboring planets are where we have the best prospects for finding and analyzing the atmospheres, surface chemistry and perhaps even the fingerprints of a biosphere – the provisional signals of life.” The other interest in discovering habitable planets close to us is also explained because these worlds “are the destinations where humanity will take its first steps in interstellar space using futuristic robotic probes at high speed”. (10)
2030: the conquest of Mars?
NASA thinks of a human mission to Mars around 2030. It is estimated at between 100 and 300 billion dollars this mission. NASA calls for international collaboration to go to Mars, just to share the note. “We still need to be able to go to the red planet and come back. The SLS rocket currently developed could be used, but “it would take another 10-15 years to develop a vessel”, anticipates Jacques Villain. (…) There would remain the question of radiation, the need to gain speed to reduce the duration of the journey. , the impact of such a trip on the muscles and bones of the crew members … Not to mention their mental health, in such promiscuity during these two years, when the individual record is 438 days in the space. There would also be the problem of landing, the most difficult stage of this journey. “The atmosphere is so thin and unknown that the behavior of the probes is difficult to predict”, comments the president of Cnes (National Center for Space Studies). “And landing a 200-300 kg probe is not the same story as landing a 10-20 ton vessel.”11
The first humans on Mars should be coming soon. In 2030 or maybe before, in 2024, for the more optimistic like Elon Musk. But by the way, how long does it take to get to the red planet? There is more and more talk of sending men to Mars. NASA is preparing there for a first manned trip by 2030. The boss of SpaceX, Elon Musk, is very ambitious in this area and plans the arrival of the first humans on Mars for 2024. Mars is on average 220 million km from the Sun (the Earth is 150 million km from our star). The two planets move, each at a different rate. But the Earth takes a year to circle the Sun and Mars takes 1.9 years. Typically, a shooting window opens every 26 months. For space agencies, therefore, it is not a question of missing it. Currently, a trip to Mars, thanks to a reduced approximation of the two planets – this occurs every 1.6 years and takes about 260 days.12(12)
The existence of extraterrestrial life and religions
The great Earth religions do not disapprove of the idea of the existence of other inhabited worlds in the universe. Many ancient texts refer to it. What if aliens were mistaken for gods or God who is in the heavens, the most high? Reading the first chapters of the Bible reveals many accounts of visits to Earth by visitors who came in chariots of fire, carrying messages of great wisdom. In December 1992, two months after the “rehabilitation” of Galileo by John Paul II, to which he had worked, Coyne declared: “The Church no longer excludes the existence of other intelligent beings in the universe… In a text devoted to the origins of creation, the talmudist Hervé Elie Bokobza underlines that the Zohar, one of the major works of Kabbalah, mentions human creatures residing on planets located “below” our Earth. “13
The flying machines described by Ezekiel (The Bible I 4-14 and 15-28), the aerial warfare of Ramayana, the epic of Gilgamesh, the Elohim of Genesis (The Bible VI 1 -4), the Sky Watchers including speaks Enoch (Book of Secrets of Enoch VI 1-2, 6; VII 1-2; VIII 1-3; X 10).
The Koran explicitly mentions the plurality of worlds in the sense that they obey God. Thus, the inhabited worlds are cited in nine suras. (Quran: Sura I, verse 1; II, 3; V, 109; VI, 101; X, 3; XI 108; XIII, 15; XXI, 16; XXXVI, 36). Why, indeed, life exists only on one planet, the Earth, while hundreds of other planets exist in the solar system and around other stars, this is also proven. Islam goes further, by making the “prediction”, not only of the existence of extraterrestrial life, but of an encounter with the Terrans: “Among His proofs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and of human beings. alive that He has scattered there. He also has the power to bring them together whenever He wants. ” (42, 29).
Our works of fiction and our imaginations, writes Laurens Vaddeli, often endow extraterrestrials with a morphology very similar to that of humans. But who tells us that evolution could not have taken other paths on a radically different planet? Would we be able to communicate with beings so fundamentally foreign to our representations? Could we even recognize them as a form of life?